Christopher Columbus Galician

Colón gallego
¡Colón era gallego 100 razones!

As a basis and starting point, we show that Christopher Columbus , assisted by his brother and children, through sheer determination kept his purpose to conceal his origin and country, in which all historians agree, and the best example of this is the statements of his own son:

“… Wanted his homeland and origin were less certain and known”


“… Wanted the Admiral imitate Christ himself, who as their predecessors of the royal blood of Jerusalem, saw fit that his parents were less known”


“… It was his will that his parents were less known, and so the more his persona was adorned with all that suited for such a great event, the less he wanted his origen and homemeland to be known …”

His son Fernando Colon, also quotes some verses provided in his will, that they should be placed in the front of the house he had built on the banks of the Guadalquivir Seville for his housing and shelter of his monumental Library:

[box type=»bio»]“Appreciate the self-respecting ones, the common estimation, therefore the people who move with so easy chance, they well considered to launch from their homes, for worse, the same  that today are judged to be the best”[/box]

These verses, which were never put on the facade of the palace of Ferdinand Columbus, came to say that the family who built this palace was once thrown out of their homes by those who today will be rendered the highest honors.

At a meeting held by the Academy of History, April 30, 1926, appeared the following proposition, which was accepted and incorporated into the record:

[box type=»bio»]“If it is true that so far there is  no sufficient proof to establish that Columbus was born in Pontevedra, nor is there that he was born in Genova”.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons!

When in 1493 the ambassadors Francisco Grimaldo Juan Antonio Marchesi returned to Genova carrying the news of the discovery and the background they had of the discoverer, nobody knows him, do not ring the bells, and  no celebration of a “picola festa” to commemorate his countryman, nor parents, siblings, cousins, uncles and nephews who celebrate such fortune.

Columbus was  Galician 100 reasons!

The Portuguese chronicler D’Almeida said that Christopher Columbus was so acquainted with the ports of Portugal and Galicia, who came and went at all hours of the night without fear of risk, since it is  believed that Christopher Columbus was from those lands.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

The philosopher Raynal says Christopher Columbus was  from the Lusitanian kingdom.

Von Ottoe Prussian historian says it was believed that Christopher Columbus was Lusitanian.

Malte Brun, in his book The Discovery of America by Christopher Columbus , cites among Portuguese discoverers to Christopher Columbus .

Harrise Henry, in his work, shows that Christopher Columbus was not born in Genova or Saona, who had no relationship whatsoever with the Columbo family from Italy and  an italian citizenship was attributed to profit.

Among the contemporaries italian chronicles and writers of Christopher Columbus who didn´t consider him Italian, since they  did not know him, we find Sabellico in Historiarum Rhapsody, Venice 1504, Foresti da Bergamo, where Suplementum Suplementi, Venice 1503, Albertino in Miraviglia Romé, Rome 1509 and Trivigiano. ItalianosAmbiveri writers, Corbani, Pereti and Franceschi, do not consider him Genoves nor Italian. The Count of Savorgnan de Brazza, Paul Toscanelli and Serpa Pinto, thought him Lusitanian , and the ones who considered Colón to be Spanish were : Aníbal Juanarius, Giacomo Trotti, besides the Papa Alejandro VI, who in a letter to the Catholic Kings Christopher Columbus called “beloved son of Spain”.

The Spanish Martyr, Andrew Bernáldez, Father Bartolomé de las Casas, Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, Lorenzo Galindez de Carvajal, Francisco Lopez de Gomara and the Portuguese Juan Barros, or do not mention him or say he was Genoese, without providing further data.

Nota autógrafa de Colón
One handwritten note from Christopher Columbus trying to write something in Italian, he was really bad

In short, it is not true that all contemporary historians of Christopher Columbus considered him Genoese, and many would assume him to be Portuguese or Spanish and others do not even mention his homeland, and those who wrote shortly after his death, they can not harbor the conviction that he was Genoese or natural from Italy, or at least no one can assure it with facts and  reasons,  all simply establish his homeland as Genova, referring to each other, indicating different towns of Genoa, without evidence and without hard data or their parents and other ancestors, or their brothers, or his wife or his life, until he came to Castile, by which we may well conclude by stating that the homeland of Columbus for all of them was an indecipherable enigma.

Why then came down to us the idea of a Christopher Columbus Genoese?, in the eighteenth century Cassoni wrote the “Annals of Genoa”, far removed in time from the events and no evidence on which to base his theories, he invents a fantastic story about Colombos and Colombas, and yet the most remarkable writers of his time adopted it as an article of faith, since then it is possible to assure that all the generations that have been happening, have learned in schools, then colleges and later in few literary or historical works, this fabulous relationship completely undocumented past, ”The petrified dogma is born!”. It was followed by others like Marcel Staglieno when four centuries later came home to determine Colon´s house with a meridian accuracy  “in the Borgo di San Stefano, on the street Molcento, first log panel at the entrance of the avenue and the observer’s right, leaving SantaAndrea the door … “. Today there are 21 Italian cities vying for the honor of being the birthplace of Columbus.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Later, on the eve of the Fourth Centenary, the Genoese seeing that everything written in the previous century was questioned, and in a fit of national identity are forced to recover the discoverer and his feat, the city of Genoa having a Cristóbal Colon Italian questioned, instructs the gathering of all documents that link Colon with Genoa, and between 1892 – 1896, 14 volumes in 5 volumes turned up, “The Raccolta Colombina”. The Raccolta inconsistencies between Colon and Colombo are so unsustainable that further suspicions arise, Celso Garcia de la Riega being the first to discern in 1898, gives a lecture in Madrid, where he exposed documents that placed the surname in Pontevedra (galician city), the toponymy matching, …, and most importantly, their arguments against the Colombos from the Raccolta are so devastating that the theory of Italian colombo, since then, never recovered, and that is why, so many nations now appropiated to oneselves their origin.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

The colombistas say the Italian Cristoforo was born between 1444 and 1451, however, the very Christóbal Colón says he took part in an armed expedition by Renato De Anjou in 1459, so Colón was between eight and fifteen years old, being impossible that at that age he had commanded an expedition whose object was to reinstate the King Rene of Provence on the throne of Naples, which had been thrown by Alfonso V of Aragon in 1442, therefore Colon tells us himself in a letter to Fernando and Isabel years later:

[box type=»bio»]“it happened to me, that the king Reynel, God has in his glory, sent me to Tunis, to seize the Fernadina´s ship, and being already on the island of San Pedro, in Sardinia,  one Saetía (small boat) told me they were with the said two (ships) galleass and a Carrack(slow-sailing cargo ship), therefore the people who went with me was altered, and was determined not to follow the journey, except to be back to Marseille by another ship and get more people. I, considering they could not being convinced without  forcing their will,  I granted their demand, but at dusk turned the sails, and the next day, at sunrise, we were inside the Carthage´s cape, believing them after all  we were going to Marseille “..[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

During the twenty years of his public and known life in Spain, that is from 1484 to 1506 when he died,  he never showed or expressed that he was genoese, and neither there is authentic document that so credits it.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

In the royal letters granted to Christopher Columbus on April 23, 1493, is empowered to establish one or more primogeniture(entailed state), where he says:

[box type=»download»]“IT is own(proper) of Kings and Princes to honor and exalt their natural subjects and especially those who serve well and loyally … “[/box]

Bartholomew Columbus , brother of the admiral, was also declared a natural subject and Spanish kingdoms in the mercy deAdelantado he was awarded the Catholic Monarchs, the original of which is on file with the Duke of Veragua.

In the will of Queen Elizabeth, in one clause says:

[box type=»download»]«The islands and mainland of the Ocean Sea and Canary Islands were discovered and conquered at the expense of the kingdoms of Castile and León and  natural Dellos . «[/box]

In the letter of Christopher Columbus to the mistress of the Prince D. John puts it this way:

[box type=»download»]« I should be judged as a  captain who went from Spain  to conquer India fasta «[/box]

In a letter to Santa, says:

[box type=»download»]» Because these people are very simplice in arms, as your Highnesses will, of seven that I take to carry them deprender  our Fable «[/box]

From his log book, Tuesday October 16:

[box type=»download»]» vide many trees and very deformed of  our … «[/box]

The same Journal, Friday October 19:

[box type=»download»]… Nor was I tired eyes look so beautiful vegetables and so different from  our … «.[/box]

Diary, October 28:

[box type=»download»]«There were many palms other than those of Guinea and  our … «.[/box]

The same Journal, Sunday November 4:

[box type=»download»]… And have favas Faxo-tions and a variety of  our … « . (We can also observe as «hives» and «beans» appear in Galician).[/box]

Journal, Tuesday November 27:

[box type=»download»]«And I say that Your Highnesses should not allow that here concerned nor foot faga  no foreigner , except Catholic Christians. »  («faga» instead of «do»)[/box]

In the memorial addressed to the Kings from Isabela City January 30, 1494, on the second trip reads:

[box type=»download»]»… And I shall appoint as their Highnesses King and Lords Reinamisnatural … «.[/box]

In the letter Christopher Columbus wrote to Commander Nicolás de Ovando in March 1504, it reads:

[box type=»download»]»I also ask for mercy you that you have to Diego Mendez Segura, my assigned as Flisco (Italian), you know that is the key of their land , and have both bereaved me. «[/box]

Finally, in the Capitulations of Santa Fe de Granada, in 1492, where Kings granted the privileges required to begin their journey of discovery, is considered his subject and natural. You are not required Letter of nature, which was forced at the time to access an order, create an entail or earn a degree, he was appointed none other than Viceroy and Admiral, the same year the Kings will authorize one or more mayorazgos found .

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

On the death of the fourth Admiral Diego Columbus in 1578, extinguished the male hotline and prompted a lawsuit by the succession would not end until 1608 (thirty years), in the trial are two wills one of 1506 in which references other than 1502 and 1505 that never appeared. In 1506 is Christopher Columbus primogeniture in favor of his son Diego

[box type=»bio»]«And having the fixed male non inherit my son D. Fernando for the same guise, and non having the fixed male heir to inherit D.Bartholomew my brother for the same guise and for the same guise if he had no male heir son, who inherits another my brother that understands each other aide of kin to my line, and this is for good. E does not inherit women, unless they fail not fail not man, and if this acaeciese, whether women are closest to my line. «[/box]

We present another witness at the trial, where it appears the famous phrases:

[box type=»bio»]«When I was born in Genoa … della left and she was born …», also, «… or the other end of the world will not fail my lineage true man who had called and call her he and his predecessors in that Colon … If the woman has more blood coming in debtors and legitimate. «[/box]

In his will of 1498, many irregularities are noticed:

  • The firm listed does not match the spelling of the Admiral and committed several errors when placing the points that Christopher Columbus stood on each side of the s.
  • It gives live to Infante D. John when he died on October 7, 1497. When this document was presented 80 years had passed since the events.
  • It was not a public deed.
  • Several litigants took Pauline, were dispatches or letters of excommunication which were issued in court for the discovery of some suspected things were stolen or maliciously hidden RECITED, took the name for having instituted by Pope Paul III.
  • Appear several lines labeled with various dates.
  • The twists Galician Columbus used both in speech and writing, appear correctly in 1506 and replaced in 1498: instead of aviamento aviamiento, instead of aseñalar point, instead of asellará seal, understand and understands rather of intenda and intende, besides a certain rather well, rather than almirantado almirantdgo, instead of privillejo privilege and privillejos, instead of aShow show.
  • The institution was not his letter, the document was missing a piece, the most important, and the court designates that «not authentic or solemn»
  • Appears signed by Ferdinand and his Secretary of State, Don Fernando Alvarez, who had died in 1501 and four years before that since he did not sign.

The Testament of 1506, awarded in Valladolid, was the only one who was taken into account as to regulate the succession undisputed inheritance, titles and privileges, he says he was born in Genoa or anywhere else, nor does mention of any people of Italy or the genovesado, or distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate relatives and also no exclusion of any name except «Columbus».

Despite having the trial the last testament that itself was a public deed, the fact is that the will of 1498 was achieved entangle enough to let out his true heir, Christopher Columbus Admiral’s grandson, who was the son adulterous the third Admiral Luis Colon, as the case appears set the provision requiring that the heir must be legitimate and no man must have engaged in misconduct touch thicker than the honor of God and of his seed. With the false testament also exclude Colombo got litigants, not surnamed «Columbus». In this way inherit Colón de Portugal won the female line when there was a more legitimate male heir.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

This Christopher Columbus (grandson of Columbus) visits in the years 1575 and 1576, coinciding precisely with the years that became vacant succession of Christopher Columbus by lack of male, appears visiting the Brotherhoods of the guilds of the Holy Trinity and dizzying Pontevedra.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons!

Many place names with which Christopher Columbus baptized matched the Galician, plus much resemblance almost always observed.

Christopher Columbus was baptizing places and features a matching place names in Galicia, the vast majority of this toponymy is nestled in just a radius of about 50 kilometers in the Rias Baixas. Cristóbal Colón baptizes the first island discovered as «San Salvador » , then come,Porto Santo, Santo Tomé Sea (inlet in the Ria de Pontevedra), Land of Grace , (Ria de Pontevedra), c abo La Galea, Stitch, Punta Launched , etc.. Tradition says that in a house Poio (Pontevedra) of always knew he was born the discoverer of the Indies, was and is situated in the parish of San Salvador, in the district of Porto Santo, located on the estate of Stitch , farm that in its southern part bathes the Pontevedra estuary, right between the Galea and Launched and opposite the shrine of Our Lady of Grace on the island of Tambo.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons!

[box type=»info»]Sotomayor Castle belonged to the parish of San Salvador.[/box]

The Admiral did not impose on their baptisms a single name or in memory of Genoa, Saona, Liguria or any other town in Italy.

Christopher Columbus put «La Gallega» to an island, two ships and a ship, «Gallego» . Among these ships highlights «La Gallega» flagship of the first trip, dedicated to St. Mary patroness of Pontevedra.

[box type=»info»]All ships of the first trip took Galician crew.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Luis Ulloa, Peruvian Galician, antigenovistas arguments convinced Don Celso Garcia of the Waters, defend a Columbus with «m» (Colom) lineage would be east, other than Colombo and Galician Colones. He based his argument on a certain letter from Christopher Columbus to Rafael Sanchez treasurer, where it appeared the Admiral’s name ending in em (Colom), but this letter he saw, it was not an original as it had been translated into Latin by Leandro Cozco while Columbus in all his letters and writings of his handwriting always wrote Columbus, completed in n. Also in the Galician of the time, the words interchangeably ended either consonant.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

On 18 December on the first trip of Christopher Columbus , this sends spruce ships and celebrate the Virgin de la O, the same day that commemorates Pontevedra her employer. FrMartín Sarmiento (XVIII century) says in this regard:

[box type=»bio»]»The Columbus Caravel it came out, it was called La Gallega, according to Oviedo, and was dedicated to St. Mary, referring to the patron saint of Pontevedra. Much attend Henry IV which give, as did Pontevedra, the Privilege of a 30-day Fair, 15 before and 15 after the Feast of Sn. Bartholomew, Patron of the town. The Catholic Monarchs that had led Mareantes gave all of the Villa, the privilege that could not execute but as Nobles, not being for the crime of high treason. The pickpocket Reyes that they all shields usasen Pontevedra Factory. And the colon that Carvel was called the Galician and was called and were dedicated to St. Mary. Much attend all that, I say, to make it unlikely that the best ship, Argos or the Caravel Gallega in which colon mounted on his first voyage discovered the New World, had been made in the Suburb or Fish of Pontevedra and is devoted to St. Mary the Great (so called), who is the patron saint of all sailors in separate parish. Sarmiento fr.Martín «[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

In his writings contained many words from Portuguese, all sharing the Galician other exclusive use of Galician and Portuguese no exclusive only.

Only once tried to write in Italian, but so dire, showing that we only spoke broken.

Christopher Columbus wrote the Castilian long before taking up residence in Castile, because in the year 1481 scoring books in Spanish, and when I read and wrote in Latin, solecisms incurred own a Spanish speaking person.

It is impossible that in the letters to his children, his brothers and his friends always emplease Castilian, with many twists (Galician-Portuguese), without ever escape him a phrase, a saying, a word of Italian. The same happens with all the notes on your expenses, credits and debits.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

In 1951 Captain, Julio Guillen Tato, conducted a painstaking research report, «The parliamentary sailor on the first voyage of Christopher Columbus , «which among other things said:

[box type=»bio»] «Columbus quartering needle compass or voices beyond the Mediterranean and the galleys, employing always Ramusio and many others, even translating from Portuguese … And by using this pink ocean full of Nordic origin, it seems as if he had never sailed the Mediterranean, or as little, that neither one occasion he slips a «Mediterraneanism». «Christopher Columbus wrote according to parliamentary ú navaresca oceanic of the ships, that our sailors of Cantabria, Galicia and sack of Cadiz and spoke at least a century earlier.»[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons!

Dibujo de Castelao, en la nota superior se interesa por los documentos gallegos.
Castelao drawing in the top note is concerned documents.

Galician theory would after the death of its founder, an unexpected enemy, the Academy Galician this, directed by Murguia has responsibility for ensuring all obstacles to the followers of the thesis will assert its influence in the Academy of History in Madrid, and everything to prevent the imminent recognition may lie with his political enemy, Celso Garcia of the Waters .Reaching the merits propose should happen to Don Castro Sampedro, if they were to deliberate Academy for, and claiming that he found the first documents (not true), but opposed rieguistas, therefore, not for you , or me.

Eighteen years after making his famous lecture in Madrid, is accused of having altered some documents, the Spanish Academy of History, harangued by Murguia and supported byAltolaguirre and Yarce Oviedo, try to thwart by all means to Christopher Columbus is credited Galician. The historian and member of the Geographical Society of London, Colonel Mansfield , Garcia came out in defense of the Waters, saying in a lecture given in London, he considered authentic and valid all documents and does not feel that they have some scratches, affect the text and other deficiencies not seem essential, especially when the word is displayed where «Colon» in each of the documents, shows no deterioration or alteration, Camille O’Sirvi paleógrafo considered the same.

But this accusation served to corner the thesis Galician, and even today some still refer to counterfeiting, meanwhile, continued to appear documents and more documents that indicated that there Colones in Pontevedra. The biggest instigator of this crusade was the scholar of history Altolaguirre and Duval, who deliberately deleted those records of the Colombina Raccolta , who were suspicious and damaging to his thesis, but when it showed abundant counterfeit acts, rather than applying the same medicine prescribed Garcia of the Waters, defended himself by saying this:

[box type=»warning»] «The have discovered that some documents which contains the name of the first Admiral of the Indies are spurious (false), and not checked for authenticity to others have been destroyed or not found the originals, have motivated the be received with some distrust the legal documents in Italy … that a document is false, can not constitute proof that what are all the others. «[/box]

When followers of Levantine Theory Luis Ulloa, presented the documents Borromeo , at par were criticizing the documents submitted by Don Celso, knowing that the documents they submitted were totally fabricated documents, as this was demonstrated, while today No longer are and we doubt if ever came into existence.

Besides the documents defended by Celso Garcia de la Waters , Telmo Vigo 1519 find a document where it appears the same «John Columbus’ Santa Maria and the cruzeiro and although Serrano Sanz and Oviedo paleographers Arce took great pains to find any trace of falsehood , had to take it for good. Castro Sanpedro find two documents, one of 1518 and another of 1520, also referring to that «John Columbus» and a 1500 reference to a «Antonio Colón».

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Cruzeiro of Portosanto

Many historians believe that Juan Antonio Colón Colon and this is the same person, because when called Juan Antonio Colón sometimes appeared with one name or another. Christopher Columbus claimed to have a relative whose name was Juan Antonio Colon and Juan Antonio Columbus appears as captain of a ship on the third trip.

As mentioned the existence of Colons in Pontevedra before the discovery, is beyond doubt, but continued to be found descendants until the mid nineteenth century. The last descendant was Vicenta Gil Arias Marino called Aldonza in reference to Aldonza de Portocarrero, wife of Nuño Colón de Portugal. The people of Poio said it was the last descendant of Columbus, and why she always said, Sobrino Buhigas in 1924, confirmed by the English historian Mansfield that these rumors were true when studying various writing and inheritance documents.

[box type=»info»] Note:  It is impossible to deny the existence of Colones before and after the discovery in Pontevedra, the effort undertaken to deny such evidence was excessive, given that it can not categorically state that was Galician.The thesis Galician has plenty of arguments and evidence to go forward without an arm, but more rhythmic walking with them.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons!

The people of Poio (Pontevedra) have known of old, passed from father to son, that Christopher Columbus was born in a house in the parish of San Salvador, this led to the Civil Governor of Pontevedra, Don Luis Tur and Palau call her Benito Muniz Perez, 76 years to lend declaration, and before the gentlemen D.Adolfo CastroMonge, D. Rupelo Cosme, D. Julio Alvarez Builla, D.Red Andres Soto, D. Luciano Varela, said:  «as a young man had heard Portas Francisco Fraga, who died at 97 years old, who learned from her mother this Portas Alberta 105 years, and Alberta of yours of 107, that he had discovered the Americas was born in a small house of Porto Santo (now inhabits a niece), and left small and no more was heard of him. «

Casa natal donde la tradición dice que nació.
Birthplace where tradition says he was born.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Marcelo Gaya and Delrue , (Academic corresponding BellasArtes RealAcademiaAragonesa Nobles and San Luis de Zaragoza). In his book published in 1953, carried out a detailed study based on a profile of Christopher Columbus , arriving at this conclusion:

[box type=»bio»] «Who was this man? For now, we still do not know. By its language, we have seen, was to be a Galician-Portuguese Tuy region.Circumscribing the problem further and to rely on his own statements, it was probably a native of one of the villages, where the rectification of frontiers, changed nationality following the Treaty of Trujillo, in 1479, to the war of succession of Castile, between China and Portugal. It was born in a place then annexed to Castile, not lying to say «foreigner», since at the time of his birth, had been ceded to Portugal, not lying, because, though born Castilian, had become-alien- «.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Los Reyes Cortes held in Alcala de Henares, and on the same date some chroniclers situateColumbus real audience asking others to PedroMadruga (Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor), a little later the largest feudal nobleman disappears mysteriously unknown time in which circumstances or burial data, while Columbus in Portugal appears. These are the first data we have of Columbus ignoring all his past, until the city of Genoa in the late nineteenth century invented the story of a wool carder Colombo and vintner.

One of the tests that reveal the identity change of Christopher Columbus have on hand the chaplain and chronicler of Ferdinand and Isabella, Lucio Marineo Siculo (Sicilian), who knowing himself to Christopher Columbus called «Petrum colonum» , not the only, another historian of the early sixteenth century, Gaspar Frutuoso (Portuguese), refers to him as «Dom Pedro Colón, who as descubriu Indies of Castile».

[box type=»info»] The first trip with Christopher Columbus, came two Indians he baptized with the names of Christopher and Peter .[/box]

[box type=»info»] Note: We remind the reader that we defend the double identity of Christopher Columbus, 1485 Before everything about it is unknown, at this stage say that his true identity was that of Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor (Count of Caminha), which later changed by Christopher Columbus To do this, despite the deliberate destruction of evidence and documents, try spinning all matching signs.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Three of the children of Pedro Madruga is called Diego, Hernando and Christopher . Children known Christopher Columbus were Diego and Hernando, but the «History of Córdoba» unpublished work and manuscript dated in 1620 and written by the Disc. Morales and Padilla, mentions another son:  « With greater contentment he received Eniíquez of Harana Dona Teresa, his wife, Mrs. Cordova’s natural, and  his sons Don Diego, Don Cristobal and Don Hernando . With they way the Via de Barcelona « .

In the diary of the first trip (Thursday, February 14; extract Houses), «It says more: it also gave him great pain I had two children to study in Cordoba that left fatherless and mother in a strange land …» , Fernando’s mother was still alive, Who was then the second child which left an orphan, plus Diego? .

[box type=»info»] Note: We try to show that Christopher Columbus had more children than those officially Diego and Fernando, that one of them was named Christopher, and should be Cristobal de Sotomayor son of Pedro Madruga.[/box]

[box type=»info»]Clarification:  A Columbus was officially supposed two women, Agnes of Perestrello and Beatriz Enriquez de Arana, but has not been able to show that he had married and with one, or another, is more, not know, do not know if the name Agnes is really Perestrello, and Beatrice is unknown about everything.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

What we do know for sure is the wife of Pedro Madruga (Columbus), Tereixa of Távoras, related to the Portuguese royal house.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Cristobal de Sotomayor was on the second voyage of Christopher Columbus , where he was Diego Colón, with whom she had a close relationship, and this helped him with the greatest diversities of Indians of the island of Puerto Rico, justifying it as a matter of ancestry; be Cristobal de Sotomayor nobleman. Decision something strange in the son of a vinitero, especially when Cristobal de Sotomayor waive your rights of lineage and Diego Colón protest it.

Cristobal de Sotomayor gave the first books to Ferdinand Columbus, who later would have one of the largest libraries of the time.

Christopher Columbus in a letter to his son Diego mentions that leaves other sons of those who regrets being unable to attend to.

After returning from his first trip in March 1493, Christopher Columbus wrote to the Kings:

[box type=»bio»]

Now, most serene princes, VA agreed that I left wife and children at the beginning of this journey which now return to my land came to serve him when I arrived at Castilla …».[/box] ( According to all historians Christopher Columbus lived at least nine years in Portugal. So when did Castilla reached from Portugal, therefore Portugal calls «their land».)  

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Christopher Columbus wrote to Prince loves a past warrior stating:

[box type=»bio»] «I should be judged as a captain who brings so much time today fasta piggyback weapons without leaving an hour and gentlemen of conquests and use, not letter, except if they were Greeks or Romans, or other modern, there are so many and so noble in Spain «.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

John II of Portugal, sent a letter to Christopher Columbus to meet with him at the Portuguese court and gives the treatment of: » O nosso special friend «, had to know him well  Pedro Madruga fought like most trusted Captain deAlfonso V and John II of Portugal in battle of Toro, so he was given the title of Count of Caminha for his services, also struggled with his relative and Guilleume privateer armed Columbus call the Franco-Portuguese league, which starred inthe Battle of Cape St Vincent off the Portuguese coast against Genoese ships. PedroMadruga irmandiños fight against Antisabelina war and with the continued support of troops and weapons brought from Portugal. Pedro Madruga reaches Vasco Da Ponte Galicia as much wealth for their raids Portuguese maritime and major alliances.

It should be clarified that although historians argue that Christopher Columbus arrived in Portugal in 1476 and left in 1485 to go to La Rabida, nine years, it tells a different story in 1505, in a letter written to King Catholic:

[box type=»bio»]

… I went to Portugal to carry to the king from there discover understood in more than another, he stopped him sight, hearing and all the senses in fourteen years that I do not understand what I said …»[/box] (Fourteen years before 1485 places us in 1471, then Columbus was in Portugal when Cristoforo Colombo still resided in Italy.)

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

The Franciscans of Christopher Columbus is attested by the testimony of two of his greatest biographers, Father Bartolomé de las Casas and his son Fernando (Hernando), the first said he saw in the streets of Seville dressed in Franciscan habits and always was devoted to the Order of St. Francis, his son says the same:  «my Lord Admiral was devoted to the Lord blessed horden of Saint Francis and his habit died …» . His greatest protectors were Fray Juan Perez and Fr Antonio de Marchena, Franciscans of the Convent of La Rabida.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

PedroMadruga testamentary ordered Fernan Yannes his father at an early age is in the custody of the Franciscan Fr Stephen Soutelo, at the age of fourteen he was ordained and soon abandoned on Vasco de Aponte, books for guns:

[box type=»bio»] «Commander Pedro Ytem Sotomayor, my sixed bastard, that obe of a woman who knows her name, and who she is, Alfonso García Dardan, my squire, and said Rodrigo de Deza, my nephew, that give the my sixed bastard said all the things that need to be raising obiera and pledge to study because it is my will that I date and well and faga to view Soutelo Stephen Fray, Santa Theology teacher, and said Alfonso Garcia Dardan «. [/box] (King Henry IV was even offered the Archbishopric of Santiago. Their son Diego de Sotomayor, also received the habit of St. Francis.)

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Pedro Madruga like Christopher Columbus , was restrained in eating and drinking, did not like excesses and religious did not like living in opulence and were devotees of fine dining (priscilianista). The Bishop of Tui when it was for him imprisoned in the castle of Sotomayor, lost a lot of weight, which the Bishop gave complaint once released to the Kings. Madruga said that thanks to their captivity and their care the patient was cured Bishop and type away from rancor should be grateful to have him.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Christopher Columbus slept and rested little, sometimes going for days without sleep. Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor (Pedro Madruga) was known for its nightlife trasnochar advantage to attack their enemies when they slept, hence earned his nickname.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Both Madruga as Christopher Columbus used to use as punishment, climbing fully nude riding a mule debíanser those punished or reprimanded, in this way were embarrassed by the taunts and insults of the people, this form of punishment was not unusual in the time and continues to be a curious coincident mania.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Diego’s mother-son of Christopher Columbus – was Felipa Muñiz, Teresa premium Távoras PedroMadruga first wife, and was related to the Portuguese royal lineage, in fact Sotomayor-Távoras marriage was arranged and required by Alfonso V of Portugal.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Sotomayor and Colon lineages have been gradually crossing for centuries, wanting entroncar for some reason.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Diego de Deza, Bishop of Palencia and the Cardinal of Toledo, Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza were the strongest supporters of Christopher Columbus , but they were also relatives of Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor (Pedro Madruga), and the wife of P. Madruga, Tereixa of Távoras was Tábora niece mother Agnes of Fray Diego de Deza. In a letter to his son Diego Columbus was asked to visit the father Deza and remember «his first brotherly love».

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

The worst enemy of Pedro Madruga was the archbishop of Compostela, Fonseca, he and his nephew were also enemies of Columbus and his family.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

A lineal descendant of Columbus of Portugal, moved to Pontevedra to sell a property at the site of Porto Santo claiming to have been received by inheritance from their parents.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Christopher Columbus avoided sign with » Christopher Columbus «, his signature consisted of an initial hieroglyph pyramidal placed followed by Xpo: Ferens and Admiral. This initial correlation positioned so arborescent corresponds to the lineage of Pedro Madruga.

. Soutomaior.

. Soutomaior. Alvarez. Soutomaior.

Mendez Xuárez Yannes

Me: Pedro Fernández Xhistóbal Eanes

He once wrote:

[box type=»bio»] «Put me, then, the name they want to, that finally David, wise king, was keeper of sheep, and then became king of Jerusalem, and I’m the one mesmo servant who put him in such a state.»[/box]


Admitted by all that both  Christopher Columbus  and his sons and closest relatives tried to keep hidden  their origin and country, and that looking at hieroglyphic signature with which he signed, this should lock their true origin. There have been many who have tried to decipher the secret of this hieroglyph, and many have said and written that you never known the true meaning, but  Philippot  to be the first to drink the water from the right source, quickly fell into the coincidence that each of these initial pidamidal placed in form corresponded with the pedigree of Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor ( Pedro Madruga ).

According to Manuel Lago and Gonzalez, Bishop of Tuy, reading stands must comply with these standards:

  1. The letters have to be read in the order in which Columbus wanted to be read.
  2. These letters are abbreviations, as seen by contemplating and is derived from the words of the Admiral.
  3. The phrase expressed in these abbreviations must accommodate the meaning of the name of Columbus or any idea prevalent in the immortal discoverer.

My interpretation meets the three standards.

Here’s signature as it appears in many documents:

Firma de Cristóbal Colón

And here also what Columbus says about her:

[box type=»bio»] «Don Diego, my son, or any other that shall inherit the birthright, having inherited and been in possession of it, sign my signature, which I usually agora, which is an X with an S on it, and an M with a A Roman della over and above an S, then a Y with a S on top, with its stripes and Vírgules, as I agora phage, and will look for my signatures, of which find many … «(Institution of Estate, February 22, 1498.)[/box]

Stands Coinciding with the lineage of Peter Madrua, doubt was cast on last line «Xpo Ferens,» which in Latin means «Bearer of Christ» being evident that Columbus wanted to play Words with these terms.  Philippot  says » Ferens «represents the union of the names of their grandparents,» Fernandez «and» Eannes «, and in the case of» XPO «, the» X «that nobody doubts abrebiatura be that at the time was used to define» Cristobal «and» po «was also used to define» Pedro «. Therefore, for any paleógrafo «Xpo» meant «Christopher Peter», which could not and did not seem to make sense, but I had it, the genealogist Alfonso Enseñat Villalonga, not wanting help, finally confirming that «Xpo» wanted say what you actually said:

 In 1530, ie five years before the first chronicler of the Indies, Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo gave birth to their General and Natural History of the Indies, Lucio Marineo Siculo, chronicler of Emperor Charles V, wrote in his chronicle called From memorabilia of Spain, the Catholic Monarchs, after conquering Canaria, sent Peter Columbus to discover other islands much higher. At first no one was surprised to hear that Columbus was actually called Peter, but walking the years some historians pointed to a possible dismissal of the chronicler. However, nobody has realized yet that Marineo testimony is corroborated by the great humanist Dr. Portuguese priest Gaspar Frutuoso (1522-1591), which in Saudades da Terra manuscript work, drinking fountains only Portuguese – and more specifically in the archives of the island of La Graciosa in the Azores Archipelago Hiscóa found Perestrello, wife of the captain of the island of La Graciosa, was sister of Peter Colombo who discovered the New World, for he was married to Filippa Perestrello Moniz, sister of the former.Accordingly, it appears that in Madeira and Afore the discoverer was also known as Peter Colombo.

The two sources who drank  Marineo and Frutuoso  are so old and so pure that could not be contaminated by later writings. Hence the importance to be given to these two testimonies, as unusual as almost forgotten.
[box type=»bio»] We can only clarify a mystery whence comes the name of Christopher?The answer is given by Fernando Columbus when he says his father gave himself the name of Christopher carried Christ because, like «San Cristobal had that name because it happened to Christ by the depth of the water with both danger» . This means that Columbus changed the name of his parents Pedro imposed at the baptismal font.And now two questions arise when and why he changed his name? .[/box]

All who know the story of  Pedro Madruga  and participation in the wars of succession in Castile and conflict for this reason between Spain and Portugal, we can answer the doubts of Mr. Villalonga.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Finches that both helped Christopher Columbus to possible discovery journey, had as first last name Yanez. This surname of Galician origin resulting from or Yannes Eannes Castilianization, very linked in with the lineage of Sotomayor. We recall that the father was called Fernan Yannes P.Madruga Sotomayor.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Fernan Yanez (Eanes) father of Pedro Madruga was buried in Valladolid, in the chapel of his relatives (house La Cerda), Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid and is buried in the same chapel, these relatives of Sotomayor, were protective of Columbus, as were other relatives houses Sotomayor, losMendoza, Castro, Deza y Alvarez de Toledo.

His remains were transferred to a second burial in Seville, where others were also buried Sotomayor.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

HijoBastardoChristopher Columbus sought and achieved that in 1499 joining the Order of Alcántara Diego de Sotomayor (another son of Pedro Madruga) who will become Commander of Almorchon and Ox Head, and later recover the entail of the House of Sotomayor as his brother Alvaro had gotten betraying his father (Pedro Madruga) and forcing him to take refuge in Portugal. For centuries Sotomayor are entering the Alcantara Oren 1940 and also continuously do the Colon.

In 1855 it published a copy of a manuscript entitled «Chronicle of Don Francesillo de Zúñiga» , is a story that reflects the whispers of the court and written exclusively for Carlos V, among other references to Sotomayor family highlights the following paragraph:

[box type=»bio»] «I was also with his majesty M. de laxao, and contábale as Don Diego de Sotomayor é the clove of Alcantara and Rodrigo Manrique had no justice to ask the larger parcel of such order, he was fond to be hers, especially if gave the charge higher. Decíale also that Don Diego de Sotomayor seemed bastard son of Columbus Admiral of the Indies, and solicitor of the improved … «..[/box]

[box type=»info»] Note: This statement is conclusive, firstly it that Christopher Columbus was the father of Diego de Sotomayor, and also intervenes for him at the Kings. Diego de Sotomayor was the brother of Cristóbal de Sotomayor, of whom we spoke, and both were sons of Pedro Madruga, I will continue writing why there are more things, but it seems to lose time.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Baron Humboldt says about Christopher Columbus , his knowledge of Latin should learn in childhood, as some obscure parish altar boy. » Pedro Madruga received religious training in childhood at the hands of Friar Stephen of Soutelo, by order of his father Fernan probate Eannes (Yáñez). In 1446, once freed from the tutelage of Friar Stephen of Soutelo,  «changed the books by the sword»  says L. Ferreiro. And in 1469 he returned to Galicia after twenty-three years of absence. In a letter to Santa, says: » I have walked twenty-three years the sea … « .

Both Las Casas and his son, we are told:

[box type=»bio»] «Having in their tender years doctrine principles learned when I was young man went to Lisbon and turned to the art of sea.»[/box]


Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

The historian Mod. Morales and Padilla wrote a handwritten and unpublished work dated 1620, «HISTORY OF CORDOBA» here we find a curious fact when he describes the voyage of Columbus to Barcelona to tell the details of the recent discovery:

[box type=»bio»] «Step through the city of Cordova, was recevido of knights of that city, as was right, taking particular things discovered in the Indies was bringing.I got more happy Dona Teresa Enriquez de Harana, his wife, Mrs. Cordova’s natural, and his sons Don Diego, Don Cristobal and Don Hernando . With they way the way of Barcelona »

(History of Cordoba, 1620, Volume II – Folio 434, Chapter 35.)[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

On the second trip, with Ponce de León travels Cristobal de Sotomayor Sotomayor son of Pedro Alvarez ( Pedro Madruga ), and that in Puerto Rico call him  Christopher Columbus  Sotomayor, was the first settler of Puerto Rico and killed by the Indians with his nephew and his servants, by maintaining a relationship with a daughter of a local chieftain, she too was killed. All Puerto Ricans know the love story between India Taina and Sotomayor son of Count of Caminha.

The relationship of Diego Columbus and Christopher Sotomayor was very narrow and one acted as a defender of the other. Diego Colón considered to have greater lineage Cristobal de Sotomayor Ponce de Leon, the former should have a higher rank in the expedition, it was not that the same Cristobal de Sotomayor resigned his rank, this information is important, to become the first noble lineage breaks tradition, but still had more Indians in his service than any other Spanish in Puerto Rico, which Diego Colón justified.

For advocates of the  Galician Columbus , Padilla Morales’s story, not a casual mistake there to ignore, as some historians made ​​so far. Keep in mind that the publication of this book, it takes only 50 years after the largest published by the biographer of Columbus, his son Hernando, like his father interested in maintaining  its origin  uncertain.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Diego Colón empowers your waiter Fernando Valdes to ask the mayor a transfer of his father’s will of 1506 (true) and several copies » in public should sign the form, so that baliesen and hiziesen fee « .

In this document dated 1524 appears as a witness  Diego de Sotomayor  eldest son of  Pedro Madruga , the same for which  Christopher Columbus  sought improved it looked like the bastard son of Admiral of the Indies as  the chronic Zuniga Francesillo  written for the Emperor Carlos V.

While listed as Diego Columbus witnessed a power to rescue the will of  Christopher Columbus and power this set primogeniture, Diego de Sotomayor, in that same year, in the same city, also tried to unify the property and rights of one and Sotomayor indivisible and establish primogeniture in his niece, got it a year later.

So the two brothers were commissioned in that year to separate and conveniently ensure each of the two lineages, the Columbus and Sotomayor. However, Sotomayor and Columbus lineages have crossed slowly over centuries.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Beatriz Henriquez was the mother of Fernando Columbus, is considered a native of Cordova, but there is no evidence to prove it. The Columbus and Henriquez are linked by family ties from the late seventeenth to the late nineteenth century, and residing in Pontevedra.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

When reached Baiona Pinta, were received by Paio Veloso and Pedro Henríquez, a former mayor of Bayonne and captain Pedro Madruga and the other brother of Beatriz Henriquez de Arana. Beatriz was informed by his brother the arrival of Christopher Columbus to Spain. What makes us assume that both documents were resident in this town.

[box type=»info»] The pint was led by Cristóbal García Sarmiento, of the house of Lantaño Sotomayor and close relative of Pedro Madruga.[/box]

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Pedro Madruga like Christopher Columbus , was an expert navigator, so irmandinhas demonstrated during wars and later in the war antisabelina, participated in the Battle of San Vicente as a privateer and before receiving Sotomayor’s house and had great wealth and money, made ​​by Vasco de Aponte, by his travels through the sea.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Pedro Madruga  had several admirals in his family, including Guilleume Casanove (Colón old) Admiral of France. Columbus said,  «I am not the first admiral of my family» .  Upon this battle Columbus first appears by the testimony of his son Ferdinand, this places it in the  ships attacked (Genoese), we now know that is not true, first why it has been a full list of his crew, and second why Fernando has contradicted, the  ships  attackers were led by Casanove Collon who  he said was related to his father . Salvador de Madariaga in his book: «Life of the very magnificent lord Don Christopher Columbus «, when he recounts the Battle of Cape St. Vincent: In this battle is Colon fighting alongside the French and against the Genoese, which makes exclaim at the same Madariaga: «That Genovese is this that instead of fighting Genoa serve her?» .

Privateers Guilleume Caseneuve-Gascon and John Collon Collon, known as the old and Colon Colon the groom, uncle and nephew respectively, were his relatives, and  Washington Irving says that  «these admirals Columbus sailed many times and for a long time» .  these corsairs were feared throughout the Mediterranean and terrible in his deeds against the infidels, Moorish mothers frightened children with their name.

DaAponte Vasco tells how the mothers of the Galician coast, threatening children with the arrival of  Pedro Madruga , so that mothers knew Moorish by Columbus and Galician by Madruga. Bartolome de Las Casas says:

[box type=»bio»] «Christopher Columbus determined to go to walk with him, in whose company was long» and «The principle and cause of the coming of the Admiral to Spain and be as given to the things of the sea, it was a very noted man of his name and family , so named by sea by the navy that ruled against the infidels and also that of their homeland. Such was his fame that his name frightened even children in the cradle, «as Pedro Madruga in Galicia.[/box]

This Corsair nicknamed Columbus worked under the alliance of France under the command of René of Anjou. Christopher Columbus  was said to have served René of Anjou.

A Guilleume Casanove (Colon old) is found in the Galician coast fighting hand to hand with our Pedro Madruga and kings testify on February 16, 1476:

[box type=»bio»] «Because by us was sent to you, as good and loyal subject and naturally ours, you redujeses to our service and ficiesesdes every war and evil and said dapno to Columbus, corsair, and you prendiesedes and tomasedes any naos that toviese, the quales he had stolen from our subjects and natives, and ficiesedes about it all your might, and you, as a good and loyal and faithful to us DeVeDe, pusistes on site, and trabajastes for apprehending the said Colon, and peleastes with its people, and feristes and matastes lot della in the port of La Coruña, and you two ships Tomastes pudistes you aver, and prenderiades is podierades to said Columbus. «[/box]

Under the command of Columbus old was Juan de Granada, a Marine expert Renteria, who at the promises of favors and rewards by Reyes, defects of the fleet under Corsair and tries his capture.

The Corsair Columbus, fighting the same side as  Pedro Madruga . Given the ongoing armed attacks by the Basque vessels Columbus and Ferdinand coast, this organized an army under the command of Ladron de Guevara than thirty ships intended to face the Columbus Raider Ribadeo this to try to attack suffers heavy casualties, and before the arrival of Ladron de Guevara flees to Portugal and they flee with  Pedro Madruga , who was in Pontevedra.

While King Ferdinand the Catholic in  Galicia  thanks to this squad and the people of Ribadeo the beating he gave the Raider making Columbus and Nursery, Pontevedra Baiona, the chroniclers did not understand why they did not took Tui.

In August 1476, the Corsair announced it exasperated the Portuguese king to the damage in Galicia , sweep of the Andalusian coast to Gibraltar as boat found her, wanted to reset the fleet.

Things did not go as expected when attacked a Genoese fleet bound for England, using firearms (Powder) set fire to many of its own ships and  Christopher Columbus  had to find a swim or tied to a tree to Portuguese coasts.

Pedro Madruga  had a fleet, which necessarily had to take shelter in Portugal when Ladron de Guevara was heading to Pontevedra Baiona, and it stands to reason that your getaway Pontevedra for the warning occurred Guilleume of Casanove-Coulon, and participate little after the battle of Sanvicente, where Franco-Portuguese fleet was battered and appears for the first time as the official version a certain  Christopher Columbus .

If Casanove-collon skirted the coast and Atlantic coast of the peninsula, it is logical to establish their base at some point in the ally, not the war. If only the surname Columbus in Pontevedra, it is not unreasonable to think that this was their place, especially considering that Pontevedra at the time was the port that offered the best natural conditions and den den defense vessels and from Pontevedra intercepting all traffic between England and the Mediterranean.

During the wars antisabelinas (1474-1476), the Galician nobility is divided between supporters of Elizabeth and her Aunt Joan (the beltraneja), married to the King of Portugal, between supporters of Juana is Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor ( Pedro Madruga ) who hitherto kept tight control over the cities and lordships Galician, and whom the people of Pontevedra hailed as «or woody laughed.»

This feudal lord almighty, invincible hitherto cunning, versatility and skill in war was both by land and sea and also had studied church, (letter of Henry IV where he proposes as Archbishop of Santiago) was in the fall of 1476 surrounded by Elizabethan troops in the city of Pontevedra, he was only with the help of the dreaded admiral and privateer Gascon-Collón Caseneuve Guilleume, known throughout the Mediterranean by the old Colon, who acted as Admiral King’s France, and its alliance with the king of Portugal, now helped  Pedro Madruga . In this corsair piracy brings substantial resources and goods in ships, obtained in these years of his stay in the Galician coast, mainly because of the harassment that often taught Basque sailors and Genoese merchants, the former had reached an agreement with the Admiral Gascon, but soon again be looted and extorted. Vowing revenge these are involved with King Ferdinand in putting together a large fleet commanded by Ladron de Guevara, who knowing the exact location of Corsair (Pontevedra), target capture, and aid in the surrender of Pontevedra,  Pedro Madruga and French privateer seeking refuge in Portugal and because of losing several  ships  decide to attack any other Portuguese waters that furrow few months Union.He went on the opportunity presented to them, and they attack on a convoy of  ships  Genoese, this battle will be known as«the Battle of Cape San Vicente « .

Asombra a curious fact, the Genoese fleet was attacked by the «Columbus» was funded by them that Columbus in his will has some quantities meet «in a way that is not known to whom they are sent» on behalf of the heirs Di Paulo Spinola Alberghi Black and compensation for debts incurred in the past. Columbus tries to compensate with this gesture the damage caused to these merchants in that battle, and by extending to his son Diego of that obligation.

Finally I note that not only Columbus was forced to resign his true lineage and his own name, was also sentenced to not recognize his achievement was, it made every effort King Ferdinand who was aided interested in Amerigo Vespucci. I was not interested in granting the Catholic many lifelong and hereditary privileges someone who decades earlier had been one of his greatest enemies.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

A very revealing document that has gone unnoticed since the Professor and Academic History «Antonio Romeu de Armas» I found in the archives of the «Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan», it is a acostamiento the Book of the coppers of the beggar Real Pedro Toledo.

When Columbus and had the favor of the Catholic kings to make his famous voyage, only missing out the details and finding him and these in Malaga, granted a subsidy that allows the rider to cope with its battered economy, treasurer and González de Sevilla picks it up in his books:

«The day that Christopher Columbus gave four thousand maravedis, that Your Highnesses to send him to help his expense, by decree of the Bishop»

But before leaving, being in Linares, Columbus ashamed and secretive about the Queen Elizabeth and lets him know that the subsidy granted not fix the poor economy, which is forced to ask for alms again, the Queen certainly more flushed than Columbus immediately give orders to his chaplain, Don Pedro de Toledo, to release 30 gold doubloons, equivalent to about 11,000 maravedis, with this money if you can Colón back to Cordoba.

By finding unpublished in 1982 the book of the coppers, A. Romeu de Armas and his team sought to reflect this fact points to the hand of Pedro Toledo almoner, and found him, but to their surprise they found something much more revealing, the scribe defines Columbus as «Portuguese».

Where should include the name of the receiver comes in white, Antonio Romeu believes that knowing the name chose to leave the hole to cover it later, and while mention of their nationality to identify and recognize it in this way, leaving the place reserved for the blank name so far.

It has no doubt Antonio Romeu de Armas in asserting that this point in the book of accounts is the reference to the alms given two days earlier by the Queen to Columbus, and currencies that match, identifies with such care that admits of no doubt or are reflected hesitation and also guards who accompanied Columbus and were present at the time the queen granted the donation, by figures as witnesses, Rodrigo de Maldonado Alonso de Quintanilla and Fray Hernando de Talavera. Besides the Portuguese scribe called explicitly mention what happened between Columbus and Queen before treatise «et His Highness commanded me in person.»

Antonio Romeu de Armas recognized Professor and Scholar of History always stood firm in Columbus Genoese nationality, but this finding made ​​him reconsider that belief was succeeded in the same way that another famous historian, Enrique Zas, who after defending genovesidad uncompromising Columbus the most strongly changed the  Thesis Galician  once recognized his mistake, and ultimately becoming one of its most distinguished defenders.

You may wonder how it relates to  Galicia  the fact Columbus called «Portuguese», we remind the reader that the  thesis Galician  identified as the same person to Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor and Colon, that was Count of Caminha Sotomayor title granted by the Portuguese king , who fought the Portuguese troops Irmandiños, who fought as a captain in the service of the Portuguese king Alfonso V at the Battle of Toro, who fought in the Franco-Portuguese fleet against Castile, who was lord of Tui when it was occupied by Portugal , who was married to Portuguese Tábora Tereixa of royal lineage, his language and manners of speech were similar to Portuguese, that the situation of their domains always had one foot in Portugal and another in Galicia , etc.. etc.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

The Columbus visit Galicia.

Geraldini Bishop, heard that Christopher Columbus had been in Galicia news new world before the discovery.

Bartholomew Columbus received in Galicia (A Coruña) to the Kings of Castile and Ms. Juana D.Felipe the April 28, 1506 back to Castilla lost his trail in Puebla de Sanabria, his whereabouts unknown for over a year.

When Charles V moved the courts to La Coruna and sought resources to travel to Germany and be elected emperor, Ferdinand Columbus was presented offering a significant amount of gold, this happened in 1519, the year in which his mother became ill and died.

Christopher Columbus , the grandson of Admiral appears rotating visits in the years 1575 and 1576 to the guilds of the Holy Trinity and deMareantes of Pontevedra, according to records reviewed by P. Sanchez Otero.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

The expert study on the graphic identity between  Christopher Columbus  and  Pedro Madruga , performed by expert calligrapher Maria Teresa Torres Legarreta, found a high degree of similarity is not accidental and suggests that it is the same person writing at different of his life. For the study compared the spelling of documents with reference to  Christopher Columbus  PedroMadruga and belonging in both cases the file of the House of Alba, following grafoanalíticos parameters as spatial order, size, pressure, shape, speed, inclination of the letters, opening of the ovals, continuity and kind gestures and the study of the firm and heading.

This is the only work that scientifically goes to show the link between the two characters «Pedro Alvarez de Sotomayor» and » Christopher Columbus «. No thesis can expect anything, and underpins the  Galician thesis  only from a scientific point.

It’s a valid test that could be presented at trial and would be given by valid, but other handwriting experts who to question it would be based on the procedure used, procedure and methodology, which incidentally, was considered when adjusted protocol was reviewed by members of the University of Barcelona.

With all the material that the  Galician Thesis  treasures, with all matches shown, with clean engagement of biographical chronology of the two characters, with the explanation of certain mysteries of informal biography clarified accordingly by our handwriting analysis and a comparative two identities of the same person, well we could take to court anyone who says otherwise.

View Studio Calligraphy by expert Maria Teresa Torres Legarreta

 Columbus was Galician 100 reasons!

Inscripción en la Basílica de Santa María.
Entry in the Basilica of Santa Maria.

Curiously, in the Basilica of Santa Maria de Pontevedra, appears on their registration «John Collon» and the cruzeiro «Juan Colon», just curious that John II of Portugal when directed in a letter to Christopher Columbus , first things done as «Collon» and below paragraphs as «Colon».His son, Ferdinand Columbus says:

[box type=»bio»] «Admiral, according to the country where he was to live and start their new state, the word for conformarle filed with the ancient and distinguish those that precede it, others who were collateral relatives, and it is called Columbus.»[/box]

The colombistas try to defend you may file the surname Colombo and leave in Columbus, the colonianos believe that it is more plausible file the French name «Collon» and leave it at Columbus, when phonetically pronounced the same and also avoids confusing in Galicia and Portugal, so intimate with those parts.

Columbus was Galician 100 reasons! 

Galicia , among other things, can boast well before anyone else know the news of the discovery of the first performance Lapidea possess the famous exploits of naut Galician.

In Caldas de Reis there is a twelfth century church, Santa Maria de Caldas, in Romanesque style that was destroyed by Almanzor, circa thousand, as recorded in Arab chronicles, and renewed many times, located in the Camino de Santiago has Templar curious inscriptions on its walls that speak of the mysteries of the road.


Filgueira Professor Valverde on one of his visits to Caldas to give the odd lecture, was found near the church in some outer fences, a piece of undeniable historical value that seemed abandoned and neglected, it was a late baldachin ogival shaped XV, where they appeared represented  ships  of Columbus and the shield of the Catholic Kings in a piece stone. That in the event that it were a canopy, as assessed by Filgueira Valverde and not a burial mound ornament.

This piece is moved into the house in its north wall, and today you can admire what represents the first configuration and the quest of discovery.

A canopy is a domed building or canopy was generally supported by four columns, which was intended to house the altar when it appeared isolated.


Extractado del libro: ¡Colón era gallego! 100 razones

Fernando Alonso Conchouso

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